Holy Week Explained

NOTE: This article is reprinted from “Holy Week in the Western Tradition” at The Orthodox West,
a new website explaining Orthodox life and practice according to the ancient Western tradition.

 

Holy Week in the Western Tradition: A Brief Synopsis

Holy Week consists of two parts: the first four days, beginning with Palm Sunday; and the Triduum Sacrum (“holy three days”), which celebrate with particular solemnity Our Lord’s Passion, Death, and Resurrection.

During the first half, the words of St Thomas should fill our hearts and minds: “Let us also go, that we may die with Him.” (Jn 11.16) Through the liturgical rites, we follow Our Lord and, in heart and mind, follow Him by participating in His sufferings and death. Yet our focus is not to pity Our Lord, nor effect a somber mood. Rather, we participate by being immersed in His self-sacrifice, understanding that we must also put to death the deeds of the flesh, so that we might rejoice fully and full-throatedly as we are raised and glorified in Him.

During the second half of Holy Week, the Eucharistic liturgy, together with the Divine Offices (most especially the three Tenebrae services), draw us into more profound participation while, at the same time, inculcating in us the depth of joy that is located in Our Lord’s Passion. During these days, the words “Behold how He love[s] [them]” (Jn 11.36) should capture our meditations.

Briefly, these days may be summarized as follows.

Palm Sunday

Palm Sunday is the first day of Holy Week, when we remember Our Lord’s triumphal entry into Jerusalem. Immediately after Lauds, the blessing and distribution of the palms take place. Each person receives a palm, and the clergy lead the faithful in procession around the Church, while joyful chants are sung culminating in the hymn “All Glory, Laud and Honor.”

When the worshippers return, the Mass commences. During the Mass, the faithful hear the First of the Passion Narratives, from the Gospel according to St. Matthew. This Passion Narrative depicts Our Lord as the fulfillment of the promised King Messiah. “Christ our King, intercede for us!”

Holy Monday

At the Mass, we will hear of Our Lord’s preparation for burial by Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazarus. While she anoints Him with fragrant oil, we also are reminded of Judas’ betrayal and, more sadly, his impending impenitence. May the Lord’s Spirit soften our hearts to be more like Mary!

Holy Tuesday

During the Mass, the Second of the Passion Narratives, from the Gospel according to St. Mark, is read. This Passion Narrative depicts Our Lord as the Suffering Servant, who willingly and freely bears the weakness, brokenness, and sin of all humanity. “Behold the Lamb of God! Behold Him who takes away the sin of the world!”

Holy Wednesday

During the Mass, the Third of the Passion Narratives, from the Gospel according to St. Luke, is read. This Passion Narrative depicts Our Lord as the merciful Physician who readily sacrifices Himself to heal our souls. Nowhere is this more poignantly presented than in the exchange between Christ and Dismas (the “good” thief on the cross). Lord, grant us this same mercy!

Following Vespers, the first of three Tenebrae services is prayed. Tenebrae is a service of prayer conducted in near-darkness. This service includes a candle ceremony, where candles are extinguished at the end of each psalm and the Benedictus. The central feature of this service is the mystical application of the Lamentations of Jeremiah to our participation in Our Lord’s Passion, and a glorious explanation of Psalm 54 (55) by St Augustine.

Holy Thursday

The Institution of the Mystical Supper is the focus for the Holy Thursday Mass. The Gloria in Excelsis is restored with joyful bells, and the Readings recall the events when Our Lord gathered with His disciples on the eve of His crucifixion. We hear that Our Lord loves us to the end, and calls us to love one another in the same way. In an interesting juxtaposition from Holy Monday’s Gospel, we see Our Lord washing the feet which will carry the Gospel throughout the world. “How beautiful are the feet of those who bring the Gospel of peace!” (In imitation of Our Lord sending His apostles, in both Eastern and Western Rite cathedrals the Bishop, as the icon of Christ surrounded by his disciples, enacts the mandatum by washing the feet of thirteen males.)

After all have received Holy Communion, the Blessed Sacrament is processed to the Altar of Repose where it remains for adoration until the Pre-sanctified Liturgy on Good Friday.

After Mass, toward the end of Vespers, the Altar is stripped while Our Lord’s prayer on the cross (Psalm 21 [22]) is solemnly chanted. Following Vespers, the second Tenebrae service is prayed. Once again, the Lamentations of Jeremiah are mystically applied to our participation in Our Lord’s Passion, and St Augustine instructs us on Psalm 63 (64).

Good Friday

Our Lord’s Death on the Cross is commemorated with the Solemn Liturgy for Good Friday. The service is moving in its starkness and consists of four parts: hearing the Lord’s Word, the Solemn Prayers for all persons, the Veneration of the Holy Cross with its “reproaches” (improperia), and the reception of Holy Communion from the Pre-Sanctified. During the first part, the faithful hear the fourth Passion Narrative from the Gospel according to St. John. This Passion Narrative depicts Our Lord ascending His throne in glory as the triumphant King, as the sign declares.

Following the Liturgy, the third Tenebrae service is prayed. The ceremony is nearly identical to the previous two Tenebrae services. After completing the Lamentations of Jeremiah, St Augustine reminds us of the significance of Our Lord’s two natures as they relate to His Passion.

Paschal Vigil

The Western rite knows two celebrations of Our Lord’s Resurrection. The first and most ancient is the Great Vigil which, in the first seven centuries, was kept throughout the night and climaxed with the celebration of Holy Communion at dawn on Easter Day. In the past 13 centuries, the Great Vigil has been assigned, in both Eastern and Western churches, to Holy Saturday afternoon or morning. (In recent decades, not a few Western churches have begun celebrating the Paschal Vigil later in the afternoon or evening, while also retaining the Easter Sunday Mass.)

During the Paschal Vigil, worshippers gather quietly in the entrance for the blessing of fire. Then the Deacon leads the faithful into the Nave. While the worshippers are taking their places, the ancient Easter hymn of praise (Praeconium) is sung and the candles of the faithful and throughout the church are lit. Following this candlelight ceremony, Old Testament prophecies are read. This Service of Readings is followed by the blessing of the Baptismal font. The Litany of the Saints leads the faithful to a joy-filled celebration of Holy Mass. The service concludes with an abbreviated form of Vespers.

 

Easter Sunday

The Resurrexi Mass (“Mass of the Resurrection”) is the chief celebration of Our Lord’s Resurrection. It commences with the blessing of the faithful with the holy water that was blessed at the Great Vigil. Then the Mass proceeds, with the Gloria in Excelsis sung once more with great joy! While the usual order of the Divine Liturgy is maintained, it is augmented with the acclamation of “alleluia” numerous times, and with the beautiful Easter sequence (Victimae paschali laudes) as well as many familiar Easter Scripture readings and hymns. In addition, flowers once more decorate our altars, and joy pervades our hearts and minds as we proclaim, “Christ is risen: He is risen indeed, alleluia!”

 

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Lent: Dying to Self

Lent is a kind of retreat from the world. Just as Our Lord, after His baptism, retreated from the world for forty days to immerse Himself in fasting and prayer, so we follow His example.

Yet our retreat is not to fight our own battles, just as Our Lord’s retreat was not to fight His own battle. Our Lord retreated in order to enter into our fray; and we retreat in order to participate in His passion. He strove against Satan so that, on the cross, He might overcome him and win for us the victory. We wrestle and strive “against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places” so that we might not lose the blood-bought victory, and might attain the crown.

This retreat, then, ought not be seen as a means of winning what we do not have, but as a means of not losing what we’ve already been given; and also as a means of growing in what we already have.

Dying to ourselves so that we might live to God in Christ is the purpose of this holy quarantine. The question the devil continually put to Christ is little different from the question the accuser asks us. To Our Lord he said, “Are you truly the Son of God?” To us the devil asks, “Are you truly a child of God?”

As the accuser, Satan produces evidence of which we are all too familiar—evidence from our past, evidence from our desires and passions, evidence that may even lurk deeply within us. This evidence the devil throws against us in order to cause us to question our status as children of God.

Because this evidence comes to mind especially when we fast, we need to be more reliant upon the grace of the absolution of God. Frequency in the Sacrament of Penance, then, is necessary during the Lenten fast.

Yet we must not also lose sight of the devil’s desire. With Christ, the devil desired that He not re-enter the world as the Savior and Messiah. With us, the devil desires that we not re-enter the world as children of God. His goal is to beat us down so that we question both Our Lord’s love for us and our desire to live for Him, and thereby give in to our passions by thinking that we can put off holiness for another moment or day.

So during this Lenten fast, let us be clear-minded by recalling (a) that Our Lord was tempted in all points as we are so that He might overcome our adversary; and (b) that we retreat not to avoid re-entry but so that we might increase in holiness.

To increase in holiness means that we decrease in self-reliance while increasing in our dependence upon grace.

Decreasing in self-reliance is the death of self that fasting seeks to instill in us. No longer do we live to gratify our flesh; now we live to love God by gratifying whatever another desires. Our hold, then, on the things of this world must loosen, as Christ teaches us so plainly in His great sermon (cf Luke 6.27-36).

Likewise, our fear of missing out—which so often drives the “need” to feed our passions by the feeling that we need to experience all that “life” offers—also must die. Fasting, when properly practiced, teaches both our body and our soul this self-mortification.

As we put to death the desires of the flesh, we will see, through prayer that the desires of the spirit will enhance our life and thereby increase our joy. A greater detachment from the empty pleasures this world offers will lead us to be more generous both in our almsgiving to others as well as in our time to God in worship and prayer.

Let this Lenten fast, then, be the occasion and means for leaning less upon our desires and more upon God’s unending grace. Let it purify our souls as we seek to cleanse our bodies.

Above all else, let this holy season by a time when we immerse ourselves more and more in the faith and love which the Spirit has so generously poured upon us so that we might truly seek and find our happiness and treasures not in the pleasures of this world but in the unfading riches of the life of the world to come.

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Metropolitan will visit St Michael’s on March 25

The Most Reverend Metropolitan Joseph will preside at Lauds and Mass on Passion Sunday, March 25. His Eminence is the Metropolitan Archbishop for the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, and had been scheduled to visit last August but was detained by a meeting of the Patriarchal Synod in Damascus. Several times since then he has expressed his love and desire to come to St Michael’s as soon as his schedule permits.

The Metropolitan visited St Michael’s Church many times during his tenure as Bishop of Los Angeles and the West. But now, for the first time, he visits us as our Metropolitan Archbishop.

It has been nearly 27 years since St Michael’s Church was blessed with the visit of a Metropolitan Archbishop. That occurred on September 9, 1990, when Metropolitan Philip, of thrice-blessed memory, consecrated the altar and solemnly dedicated the church.

His Eminence will arrive at 9 a.m. on Sunday, March 25. During Lauds, he will ordain Reader Lazaro Mancilla to the rank of subdeacon.

Bishop John, the local bishop for Western Rite parishes, will also visit St Michael’s in March. On Saturday, March 10, His Grace will preside and give the meditations at the Lenten Retreat hosted by the Society of St Benedict. Bishop John will also preside at Lauds and Mass on Sunday, March 11. Following the Mass and dinner, His Grace will host an informal conversation with the young adults in the parish.

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Lenten Retreat on March 10

The Rt. Rev. John Abdalah, Bishop of the Diocese of Worcester and the Western Rite Vicariate, will present the annual Lenten Retreat at St Michael’s Church on March 10. His Grace’s three meditations on “Being Right with God” will draw attention to the Sacrament of Penance (Private Confession).

This retreat, hosted by the parish’s Society of St Benedict, will follow the Benedictine model of a “silent retreat.” Therefore, there will be ample quiet time for personal prayer, reflection, and meditation.

This event is intended to provide a break from the busyness of this world, to offer time to learn how to live the season of Lent, and to refresh and prepare the soul for the Lenten journey.

The retreat begins at 9 a.m. with prayer according to the rule of St Benedict, and concludes at 3 p.m. Lunch will be provided, and a free will donation is appreciated. Child care, unfortunately, will not be available.

For more information or to RSVP, please call or email the St Michael parish office.

St Michael Orthodox Church is located at 3333 Workman Mill Road, across the street from Rio Hondo College.

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Lessons & Carols at St Michael’s

A service of Christmas Lessons & Carols will be offered at St Michael on Saturday, 23 December, at 6 p.m. This year’s rendition will feature the Pacific Coast Quartet and Scott Rieker, Guest Conductor.

This service combines Scripture readings with familiar traditional Christmas hymns and carols. It is open to the community, in order to help foster the true spirit of the Lord’s Nativity.

Here are five reasons you may attend, and encourage others in your community to join us:

  1. You will hear the context, as well as the story, of Christ’s birth.
  2. You will sing familiar Christmas songs, and learn new ones.
  3. You will unite with Christians of all times and places as the readings and songs traverse centuries.
  4. You will unite with Christians in Whittier as you rejoice together.
  5. You will be reminded of what Christmas is truly about.

 

 

 

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Oh, How Blest Are Ye: All Souls Day

Let us consider this possible conversation between ourselves and the Faithful Departed, whom we commemorate this day.

 

 

 

 

 

We might say:

Oh, how blest are ye
whose toils are ended,
Who through death have unto God ascended!
Ye have arisen
From the cares which keep us still in prison.

And the Faithful Departed would respond:

Truly, we to glory have arisen
From all cares that held us in a prison,
Earthly toil ended,
We unto our God are now ascended.

We are still as in a dungeon living,
Still oppressed with sorrow and misgiving;
Our undertakings
Are but toils and troubles and heart-breakings.

We no more as in a dungeon wander;
God has taken us to Heaven yonder.
Tears and frustrations
Are the sum of earthly expectation.

Ye meanwhile are in your chambers sleeping,
Quiet, and set free from all our weeping;
No cross or sadness
There can hinder your untroubled gladness.

Oh, our destiny, how blest! How wond’rous
To be free from earthly pain so pond’rous!
Naught but rejoicing
Fills us now, our thanks and praises voicing.

Christ has wiped away your tears forever;
Ye have that for which we still endeavor;
To you are chanted
Songs that ne’er to mortal ears were granted.

Ah, what words, what language might we borrow
To describe our freedom from all sorrow!
Naught else but singing
Of the Angels in our ears is ringing!

Ah, who would, then, not depart with gladness
To inherit heaven for earthly sadness?
Who here would languish
Longer in bewailing and in anguish?

In the world man’s heart is torn with anguish,
Constantly his soul in pain must languish;
But Jesus’ merit,
Death a door has made, Life to inherit.

Come, O Christ, and loose the chains that bind us:
Lead us forth and cast this world behind us.
With Thee, th’ Anointed,
Finds the soul its joy and rest appointed.

Dearest friends, we say farewell with gladness;
May our death not cause you grief and sadness.
By Christ invited,
Someday we again shall be united!

 

Author: Simon Dach, 1635
Translated by: Henry W. Longfellow & Kenneth E. Runge

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Great is Your Reward: All Saints Day

Today we commemorate the grace of Our Lord Jesus Christ lived in and through the nameless and numberless throng that laid down their life for Christ’s sake. Many were violently executed; some were tortured and died in prison. Many died in the great persecutions in Rome or Russia; some were killed secretly. Some saw the faces of their tormenters; some never knew they were headed for death until the sword or the bullet or the bomb struck. However, in every case these Christian martyrs did not die needlessly. For the Lord mingled their blood with His own in the cup of salvation so that He might fertilize and strengthen the faithful in all times and places.

And now we celebrate, as we do each year, the reward that the Lord has given them. I call it a reward not because they sought it, but because they had to struggle and endure privation before it was given to them. And I call it a reward not because it they were competing to get it, but because it is the prize that is given to all those who endure to the end. For surely you have heard that “He who endures to the end shall be saved” (Mt 10.22; 24.13; Mk 13.13). And so they endured—not by their own strength but by the mercy of God. And so they are saved—not because they exceeded us in natural ability and courage, but because the Spirit of our God gave them the words to speak, and the strength to persevere, and the faith to look beyond their affliction and pain, to the life in the Lord God who lives for them and with them and in them.

So now the souls of these unnamed righteous heroes are in the hand of God, and no torment will ever touch them. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died, and their departure was thought to be an affliction, and their going from us to be their destruction; but they are at peace. For though in the sight of men they were punished, their hope is full of immortality. Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good, because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; like gold in the furnace he tried them, and like a sacrificial burnt offering he accepted them. (Wisdom of Solomon 3.1-6)

But our duty today is not simply to remember, or to celebrate, or to congratulate anonymous martyrs with the hope that we might live up to their example. For who wishes their death to be our death? And surely heaven is not gained only by those who suffer bodily violence.

Rather, our duty is to understand two things. First, that the death of the martyrs clearly shows that Our Lord will see us through anything—even the worst—that we will ever endure. And second, that like them we will certainly endure afflictions of soul, if not also body; and torments of the mind, if not of the flesh; and the onslaught of the invisible devil and demons, if not visible torturers and executioners. For it is most certainly true that all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution (2 Tim 3.12).

Yet this happens not because Our Lord afflicts us in this life so that we might better appreciate the life of the world to come; and not because we are being punished now to see if we are worthy of the prize of heaven. Rather, we suffer and are persecuted and endure hardship because we have been baptized in the blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and His blood by His Supper still nourishes us, body and soul. That blood is our salvation. But that blood also reminds us that our life and communion in Him participates not only in His victory, but also in His death; not only in His joy, but also in His suffering. For we know that since we partake of His sufferings, we will also share in His consolation. (2 Cor 1.17)

The Lord Jesus Himself testifies of this when He says,

“If the world hates you, you know that it hated Me before it hated you. If you were of the world, the world would love its own. Yet because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. Remember the word that I said to you, ‘A servant is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted Me, they will also persecute you. If they kept My word, they will keep yours also. But all these things they will do to you for My name’s sake, because they do not know Him who sent Me.” (Jn 15.18-21)

The One who sent the Lord is the Father. And He sent Him to bless us. That blessing comes through the death of Our Lord, and then also the drowning and death of our sinful self. And that blessing raises us to newness of life, just as Our Lord Jesus was raised from the dead by the glory of His Father. (Rom 6.4)

Yet in this life, we are constantly being put to death. And in this life, we are continually hounded by the devil who throws our past against us; and by the world which urges us to live as if God doesn’t matter; and by our flesh which so easily succumbs, and then also attacks us with all manner of sickness and pain.

Yet what does Our Lord say to all this? “Blessed are you.” Blessed are you not because you have the innate strength and nerve to get through, but because you’re wrapped in the Lord Jesus who knows the way and is your escape. And blessed are you not because you can do it, but because the Lord Jesus has both done it for you and now lives it in you. And blessed are you not because you’ve chosen the right path and are on your way, but because the Lord Himself is your Way, your Truth, your Life, and—in the end—your Resurrection. And so blessed are you not because you’ll make it if you just hang in there, but because the Lord has already made it, so you—enveloped in Him by the Spirit—have nothing to fear.

So rejoice and be exceedingly glad. For your heavenly reward is great, and far exceeds both your present cross and your imagined expectations.

So arm yourselves also with the same mind as Christ, who suffered for us in the flesh. For he who has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin, that he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh for the lusts of men, but for the will of God. (1 Peter 4.1-2)

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Return to Being Little Children

Where I grew up, it was customary to place in children’s bedrooms near the bed a precious picture of an angel watching two little ones cross a precarious bridge over a seething water fall during a nighttime storm. I had one of those pictures hanging in my bedroom. The point of this picture was as clear as it is comforting: Guardian Angels protect each of us when we are in danger. And that is the truth. Angels are bodiless spirits who serve God by serving us. And that truth is made plain in today’s Gospel, when Jesus indicates that we should not despise little children because their Angels will protect them.

The problem with the picture that hung in my own bedroom is not the truth it proclaims, but how we adults might now read that picture. We’re tempted to see angels as good and comforting, but also as childish. They’re for children. To protect them and watch over them. But as we grow older, wiser, more mature, more self-sufficient, we believe we don’t need God’s security force as much. We think angels are only for those hard spots we can’t anticipate, or can’t get out of.

And perhaps that’s how we hear today’s Gospel, and how we see today’s feast, and how we look at St Michael. He’s good—especially for children. He’s helpful—especially back then, when he took on the devil. And he’s handy—when things get out of hand. But he doesn’t really have a day-to-day connection with us, except as a symbol of God’s protection.

If we think of it that way, we miss the impact of Our Lord’s words. And that point is very direct: It’s not that children need angels. It’s that we must return to being little children. Children of God, who look to God with the same unquestioned trust, the same intense reliance, the same undaunted conviction, the same unhesitating confidence, the same loving dependence that every little child has when it looks at its mother or father.

We must return to being little children. For little “children follow their father, love their mother, don’t know how to wish evil to their neighbors, do not care about earthly riches; they insult not, they hate not, they lie not, they believe what they are told, and take for truth what they hear” (St Hilary). And “unless we return to the innocency of childhood with the simple directness of little children, we cannot enter the kingdom of heaven.” (St Hilary)

What faith really looks like. That is what we see in little children. What trust really is. That’s the gift given by those simple-hearted, who lead with the heart more than with the mind. What we see in them is what we are called to be. For “when we are well rooted in childlike simplicity of heart, we shall bear in ourselves an image of the sublime simpleness of the Lord Jesus.” (St Hilary)

Yet it is not just children or the child-like who show us the faith we ought really to have. We see this also in angels. They show us what true faith looks like. And, in fact, that is their greatest strength, and why they are given by God to minister to us.

For angels are sent by God, not to protect us with a mighty hand, not to impress us with their ability to keep us safe and ward off Satan. Angels serve us by demonstrating that true faith releases our inner strength. That complete reliance frees us to be better. That unquestioned dependence on God revives in us the image of God we are designed to illustrate.

Think back to how we lost—and how we still lose so often—our image and likeness. It is by choosing to go our own way. To act as if we know better. And to prefer to gratify our own desires, to identify ourselves by our weaknesses, to indulge our passions, to claim and assert our independence. That desire to be like God, to exchange His likeness for what we like—that ran us aground, and into the ground.

How do we arise from our dust and ashes? How do we get back to what we were, to who we are supposed to be? Look at the angels. And look especially at our patron, the holy Archangel Michael.

When there was silence in heaven,
When the demonic devil waged war against God and against us,
Michael fought against Satan and his demons
Not by looking into himself for strength,
But by not loving his life,
By freely giving up his freedom,
By choosing to sacrifice his will, his desires, his ambitions.

And then was heard this loud voice in heaven: “Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ.”

Because Michael and his angels became as little children, who are single-hearted, single-minded, in who they trust, and what they will do for those they love. And what little children will do is readily and quickly give over their most precious items in order to please mother or father, or whoever they trust and love.

And that’s why angels have such an affinity for children. Not because they are vulnerable. Not because they are innocent or simple-minded. But because, in children, angels always behold the face of their heavenly Father.

The goal, then, is to be transformed back into children; to become as little children who set our hearts on nothing more than being near and seeing face to face the holy angels in our Father’s kingdom.

By the prayers of our patron, holy Michael the Archangel, may we not lose our way but return to being children in faith, so that he might, one day, safely escort us into paradise.

Homily for the Patronal Feast of St Michael’s Church
1 October 2017

 

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Metropolitan to Visit, Bless Icons

The Most Reverend Joseph (Al-Zehlaoui), Archbishop of New York and Metropolitan of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, will visit St Michael Orthodox Christian Church on Sunday, 27 August. In addition to presiding at the Liturgy, His Eminence will bless the newly installed icons, painted by Brother Lazarus (Joseph) Brown of Our Lady and St Laurence Monastery in Canon City, Colorado.

It has been nearly 27 years since St Michael’s Church was blessed with the visit of a Metropolitan Archbishop. That occurred on September 9, 1990, when Metropolitan Philip, of thrice-blessed memory, consecrated the altar and solemnly dedicated the church.

The Solemn Reception of the Metropolitan will begin at 9 a.m., followed by the Divine Office. The Divine Liturgy (or Mass) will begin at 10 a.m. Following the Divine Liturgy (Mass), the Antiochian Women of St Michael will sponsor a catered banquet. The Guest of Honor will be His Eminence, Metropolitan Joseph. The dinner will feature homemade hummus and tabbouleh to compliment grilled tri-tip beef, grilled chicken and other side dishes. The cost is $17 per person, $50 per family.

St Michael’s Church was founded in 1977 and entered the Orthodox Church in 1981. It is a Western Rite parish in the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese.

 

 

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